This following diagram shows that $\displaystyle \sin^2 \theta + \cos^2 \theta = 1$, given $\displaystyle \cos \theta \equiv \frac{adj}{hyp}$ and $\displaystyle \sin \theta \equiv \frac{opp}{hyp}$ and the Pythagorean theorem. Here, $opp$, $hyp$, and $adj$ are variables for lengths. The values corresponding to these lengths are positive numbers or zero.