## How to Integrate in a Spherical Coordinate System

Review of Integration Integration with Cartesian coordinates is simple. The general form is $\int\int\int f(x,y,z)dxdydz$ in which $f(x,y,z)$ is an arbitrary function of the Cartesian coordinates. However, there may be cases in which integrating with spherical coordinates is more convenient. Given the above, general form for integration with Cartesian coordinates, how can one integrate in a spherical coordinate system? How the Spherical Coordinate System is Different The first step is to convert $f(x,y,z)$ into a function $g(r,\phi,\theta)$ of the spherical coordinates, $r$, $\phi$, and $\theta$. Here, $\phi$ is the azimuthal angle in the $x-y$ plane, and $\theta$ is the polar angle. […]

## The Crux of Calculus

Define $\Delta x \equiv x_2 – x_1$, to be consistent with this post. Similarly, define $\Delta y \equiv y_2 – y_1$ and $\Delta z \equiv z_2 – z_1$. The Cartesian coordinates are $x$, $y$, & $z$. In contrast, the spherical coordinates are $r$, $\theta$, & $\phi$. Here, $\phi$ is the azimuthal angle in the $xy$-plane. Next, use this post to obtain the equations relating Cartesian coordinates to spherical coordinates. In particular: $x = r \sin\theta \cos \phi$ $y = r \sin \theta \sin \phi$ $z = r \cos\theta$ Note that $x$ changes if $r$ changes, $\theta$ changes, and/or $\phi$

## Overview of Gauss’ Theorem and Basics of Integration

It turns out that deriving Gauss’ Law is easier said than done. There are several steps according to a StackExchange post . The first of these steps is understanding Gauss’ Theorem. Hmm. Perhaps Gauss used his own theorem to derive his electrostatics law. After a quick online search, it is clear that Gauss’ Theorem is just another name for the Divergence theorem . The Divergence Theorem is  $\int\int\int_V (\vec{\nabla} \cdot \vec{F}) dV = \int\int_{S} (\vec{F} \cdot \vec{e}_{n}) dS$. Oof. That is a lot of symbolism to break down. Fortunately I am able to break this down;